any airport, zip code, or tourist landmark. [230] The Kurdistan Workers' Party (designated a terrorist organisation by Turkey, the United States,[110] the European Union[111] and NATO[112]) was founded in 1978 by a group of Kurdish militants led by Abdullah Öcalan, seeking the foundation of an independent, Marxist-Leninist state in the region, which was to be known as Kurdistan. The slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a predominantly Muslim and Turkish-speaking one was underway. The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, who personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation and criminal law. Here’s an updated list of the largest cities in Turkey by population and size in 2019. Eisenstadt, "The Kemalist Regime and Modernization: Some Comparative and Analytical Remarks," in J. Landau, ed., Atatürk and the Modernisation of Turkey, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1984, 3–16. Travelmath helps you find cities in any state or country. [322], Turkey has 17 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, such as the "Historic Areas of Istanbul", the "Rock Sites of Cappadocia", the "Neolithic Site of Çatalhöyük", "Hattusa: the Hittite Capital", the "Archaeological Site of Troy", "Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape", "Hierapolis – Pamukkale", and "Mount Nemrut";[323] and 51 World Heritage Sites in tentative list, such as the archaeological sites or historic urban centres of Göbekli Tepe, Gordion, Ephesus, Aphrodisias, Perga, Lycia, Sagalassos, Aizanoi, Zeugma, Ani, Harran, Mardin, Konya and Alanya. The 1913 coup d'état effectively put the country under the control of the Three Pashas, making sultans Mehmed V and Mehmed VI largely symbolic figureheads with no real political power.

[227][228] Turkey's human rights record continues to be a significant obstacle to the country's membership of the EU. The Sephardi Jews, who were expelled from the Iberian peninsula and southern Italy under the control of the Spanish Empire, were welcomed into the Ottoman Empire between the late-15th and mid-16th centuries.
The vast majority of these are living in Turkey with temporary residence permits. Listed last is a former name or one used in antiquity. After fighting as part of the United Nations forces in the Korean War, Turkey joined NATO in 1952, becoming a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Mediterranean. [341] Turkish government has constantly blocked websites like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Wikipedia. Istanbul, which straddles Europe and Asia, is the country's largest city, while Ankara is the capital. [108] The Annan Plan for reunifying the island was supported by the majority of Turkish Cypriots, but rejected by the majority of Greek Cypriots, in separate referendums in 2004. The Final of the 2013–14 EuroLeague Women basketball championship was played between two Turkish teams, Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe, and won by Galatasaray. In 1948 both countries were included in the Marshall Plan and the OEEC for rebuilding European economies.

Turkish folk dance is diverse. [367][368] The exact figure remains a subject of dispute; according to Servet Mutlu, "more often than not, these estimates reflect pro-Kurdish or pro-Turkish sympathies and attitudes rather than scientific facts or erudition". [283] Snow falls on the coastal areas of the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea almost every winter, but usually melts in no more than a few days.

[132][133][134] Steps towards decentralisation[when?] [296] The rate of female employment in Turkey was 30 percent in 2012,[297] the lowest among all OECD countries. [505] Galatasaray won the UEFA Cup and UEFA Super Cup in 2000. [407] However, AKP policies have also caused an increase in interest and support for secularism in Turkey. [77] From the 16th to the early 20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire also fought twelve wars with the Russian Tsardom and Empire. [200][201][202] In January 2018, the Turkish military and the Turkish-backed forces, including the Free Syrian Army and Ahrar al-Sham,[203] began an intervention in Syria aimed at ousting U.S.-backed YPG from the enclave of Afrin. [268] Southeastern Turkey is located within the northern plains of Upper Mesopotamia. [78] As the empire gradually shrank in size, military power and wealth; especially after the Ottoman economic crisis and default in 1875[79] which led to uprisings in the Balkan provinces that culminated in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878); many Balkan Muslims migrated to the Empire's heartland in Anatolia,[80][81] along with the Circassians fleeing the Russian conquest of the Caucasus. Just like in many other countries, there is a trend where people are moving into the major cities in Turkey because of education and job opportunities.

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